# Hot Education How-Tos

### How To: The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Most of us have conducted an investigatory science project without even knowing it, or at least without knowing that's what it was called. Most science experiments performed, from elementary to high school students and all the way up to professional scientists, are investigatory projects.

### How To: Make hydrochloric acid from salt

In this tutorial, we learn how to make hydrochloric acid from salt. First, you will pour some salt into a distil flask. After this, you will add in some concentrated sulfuric acid to the salt. Next, you will let these react with each other. You will start to see gasses bubble up and the excess hydrogen chloride gas come out through the top of the tube. To create a stronger reaction, you can add heat underneath the reaction. Then, test this by exposing it to ammonium chloride. If it's the righ...

### How To: Find the Volume of Composite Figures (Also Called Composite Shapes)

Composite figures are composed of several geometric shapes and are three-dimensional shapes. The first composite shape is a combination of a rectangular prism and a pyramid. To find the volume of the entire shape you find the volume of each individual shape and add them together. The second figure consists of a cylinder and a hemisphere. Check out the video below for the full lesson.

### How To: Find the slope from a set of points

To find the slope of a line you must have two points and then you must plug in the two points into the slope formula. The slope formula is m= y2-y1 over x2-x1. If the slope is a fraction be sure to reduce to the lowest. Remember if a number is divided into zero it is zero, if zero is divided into the number it is undefined. A calculator can help one remember this. Horizontal lines have slopes and vertical lines do not. Drawing the lines on a graph can help you see the actual slopes and which ...

### How To: Divide and give an answer as a fraction

In this video we learn how to divide and give an answer as a fraction. If you are starting out with a simple fraction, you will simply take the number before the divide sign on the top and the second number on the bottom. If you end up with a number that is able to be simplified, make sure you take it down to it's most simple version possible. You can end up with a top heavy fraction, which means there will be whole numbers involved. Do the division to figure out how many times the bottom num...

### How To: Remember "greater than" & "less than" symbols

This video shows you how to easily remember "greater than" and "less than" math symbols. The first thing you have to remember is that "less than" symbol looks like the letter L ("less than" symbol is "<"). When you see this sign, remember that < looks like L and means "less than". The other symbol, "greater than" does not look like the letter L, therefore it cannot be "less than" and it's easier to remember. The "greater than" symbol is ">". That's it! Good Luck!

### How To: Calculate Faster Than a Calculator

When you need to crunch numbers quickly — and I mean really quickly — there's a cool method you can use to multiply two numbers together in just a few seconds.

### How To: Make a Monster Dry Ice Bubble

Sure it's been done before, but it never gets old. There's something magical about dry ice, bubbles, and especially the result you see when they're combined!

### How To: Use ">" (greater than) and "<" (less than) symbols

In this video the author explains how to identify the less than (<) and greater than (>) symbols and when to use them. She explains to us to relate the numbers to animals stating that the smaller numbers are smaller animals and bigger numbers are bigger animals. Now she tells us to imagine that smaller animals are eaten up by the larger animals. So she shows a smaller number comes on the left side of '<' sign and bigger number comes on the right side of '<' sign stating that the bigger number...

### How To: Find the area of an oblique triangle using formulas

In this tutorial the instructor shows how to find the area of an oblique triangle using different formulas. To find the area of an oblique triangle there are different formulae. The first formula to calculate the area of a triangle is area A = (1/2) * a * b * Sin(C), where a and b are the lengths of the two sides of the triangle and C is the value of the angle of the triangle that lies in between the two sides a, b. Now substitute these values in the given formula to find the area if you have...

### How To: Cite a website with hard to find author or date info

Sometimes it can be difficult to find information essential to a citation on a webpage, like an author or a date. Here are some steps you can take to make up for this lack of information.

### How To: Make elephant toothpaste with detergent, hydrogen peroxide & potassium iodide

We all know what elephant toothpaste is, but what's the best way to make this massive growing foam? Dr. Lithium from NurdRage has answers. He'll show you the best way to reproduce this chemical reaction to get the best foaming action! This is a classic science class demonstration.

### How To: Find the value of a variable in an algebraic equation

Need help figuring out how to solve simple algebraic equations? Learn how with this free video lesson. From Ramanujan to calculus co-creator Gottfried Leibniz, many of the world's best and brightest mathematical minds have belonged to autodidacts. And, thanks to the Internet, it's easier than ever to follow in their footsteps (or just finish your homework or study for that next big test).

### How To: Make Soap Out of Guava Leaf Extract for a Science Investigatory Project

Unless you're a high-schooler building a nuclear fusion reactor, the hardest part of a science investigatory project often is coming up with a good idea. You want it to be cool yet feasible, novel but still useful.

### How To: Find a number given Its percent

This how-to video is about how to find a number when its percent is given. This video is really helpful and effective in finding the number when the percent is given, the following steps are explained in the video to find the number when its percent is given:

### How To: Convert between diameter and radius

To convert between diameter and radius just follow a few steps. Sometimes we aren't given the number directly so first we need to find the diameter.

### How To: Measure the volume of a balloon

Here we will demonstrate how to measure the volume of a balloon. A balloon is not a straight edged polygon shape, usually, so the mathematical equations get that much harder, on the flip side, it may be a spherical or ovalish shape, but measurements with math alone are detrimental due to the uneven sizes of the balloon. Here is how to do it properly. You will need a bucket, preferably, to hold water, a larger container than your original bucket, and a measuring container. Place the bucket ins...

### How To: Find the area of a triangle when given 2 sides & angle

This video shows you how to easily find the area of a triangle when you know the length of 2 sides and the angle between them. The first thing you have to do is mark the sides of the triangle by a, b, c, where a is the side between A and B, b is the side between B and C and c is the side between C and A. If you know 2 of these 3 sides an you know the angle between them you can find the area of the triangle very simple: Area= (a x b x sin c)/2, where a, b are the two sides and c is the angle b...

### How To: Calculate the area of a parallelogram

Calculating The Area Of A Parallelogram A parallelogram is a 4-sided shape formed by two pairs of parallel lines. Opposite sides are equal in length and opposite angles are equal in measure. To find the area of a parallelogram, multiply the base by the height. The formula is:

### How To: Write a sum/difference of logarithms as a logarithm

To write the sum or difference of logarithms as a single logarithm, you will need to learn a few rules. The rules are ln AB = ln A + ln B. This is the addition rule. The multiplication rule of logarithm states that ln A/b = ln A - ln B. The third rule of logarithms that deals with exponents states that ln (M power r) = r * ln M. Using these three rules you can simplify any expression that involves logarithms to arrive at a single logarithm. The instructor shows how to apply these rules to a f...

### How To: Find the formula of a piecewise function given a graph

This video shows how to find the formula of a piecewise function when given a graph. The first step is to write a definition for the graph, which is done by identifying the different domains shown in the graph. The second step is writing formulas for each domain specified by the lines in the graph. The point-slope formula is used to identify the slope and y-intercept for the leftmost domain, which has a sloped line. A point and horizontal line make for simpler equations in the other pieces of...

### How To: Graph x & y intercepts on a TI-84 Plus calculator

In this video the teacher shows us how to use a TI-84 plus graphing calculator to graph a function, adjust the view window, and determine the values of several types of critical points on the graph such as x-intercept, y-intercept, local maximums, and local minimums. After entering the function in the Y= editor she presses the ZOOM button and selects Z-Standard this adjusts the view window to a range of -10 to 10 on both axis. To find each of the critical points requested the teacher uses the...

### How To: Use the ratio formula to find coordinates of a point

This video is recorded in a mathematics class room. It is very clear by the sound and picture. The faculty here is explaining that the ratio between two numbers can be found using various formulae and methods. For example, 3:1 is the ratio between p and q. Likewise he explained the other formulae and methods.

### How To: Make Water Freeze into Ice Instantaneously

Have you ever seen water freeze instantly? This "Quick Clip" shows some of my personal experiences with making instant ice using a bottle of water supercooled in a freezer.

### How To: Find the equation of the axis of symmetry

This video is about the Equation of Axis of Symmetry, The video is about the equation which is x = 3/4. In order to score correct marks for this equation, the gentleman in the video describes how and where to write x = 3/4, he says it has to be written on the graph, and the video contains the example graph. It is quite an interesting educational video, especially for those doing mathematics and want to learn more online, this video is very useful for students. There is more about the equation...

### How To: Graph linear equations using y=mx+b

This video is an instructional guide about Graph Linear Equations presented in algebraic form. It is an easy to follow, step by step guide to solving such equations using the graph intercept formula. The first example equation is Y = 2x -1 over y = mx + b. The video then shows you how to breakdown the equation into manageable sums using fractions to represent the data, and then presents the formula for interpreting the answer from these sums onto the graph co-ordinates. The second and third e...

### How To: Instant Ice! How to Waterbend in Real Life

In one of my previous articles, I showed off how to make water freeze into ice instantaneously. In this article, I'd like to elaborate on this, and show how a glass of water can turn to ice instantly on command. What exactly is this supernatural power? Discover the secrets to ice-bending—in real life.

### How To: Write a sensory poem

A sensory poem is a poem that uses all five senses to describe something. These are common poems for grade school children. They are not difficult to do and only need to choose something to describe and follow the rules.

### How To: Graph half an ellipse

If you are given an equation of ellipse in the form of a function whose value is a square root, you may need to simplify it to make it look like the equation of an ellipse. Now equate the function to a variable y and perform squaring on both sides to remove the radical. Now simplify the equation and get it in the form of (x*x)/(a*a) + (y*y)/(b*b) = 1 which is the general form of an ellipse. Now you will have the x and y intercepts which are a and b respectively. Using this values graph the eq...

### How To: Calculate percent yield

This video shows you how to calculate the percentage yield in chemistry. To find the percentage yield, you will need to divide the actual yield by the theoretical yield. Then, multiply it by 100: i.e. % yield = actual yield/theoretical yield x 100. An actual yield is the amount of a substance produced in an actual laboratory experiment. It is based on an actual physical measurement of a quantity. The theoretical yield is the yield as is calculated on paper: i.e. through calculations. Therefor...

### How To: Dissolve the shell from a hard-boiled egg with Coca-Cola

If you're a coke fiend, then you may not want to watch this, because you may become faced with a perilous decision— "Should I stop drinking soda?"

### How To: Make a cereal box spectrometer

A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This video will show you how to make a spectrometer out of a cereal box and a compact disc. This spectroscope is sure to amaze your kids for a nifty science project.

### How To: Find the area of triangle using fraction measurement

This video demonstrates the way to find the area of a triangle using fraction measurements. The person presenting this video first writes the actual formula for calculating the area of the triangle. The formula is: the area of the triangle denoted by ‘A’ is equal to half of ‘b’ times ‘h’ where ‘b’ and ‘h’ are the base and height of the triangle, respectively. Now, to make it into fractions, he writes ‘b’ and ‘h’ over ‘1’. Then he asks you to calculate “what is one times ‘b’ times ‘h’” which i...

### How To: Write A Letter From Teachers To Parents

Parental involvement is a crucial ingredient in the success of many children. Teachers know the saying all too well that it takes more than a village to raise a child, for one - it takes parental involvement. Thus, it is important for teachers to reach out to parents in that first week of school. Teachers should write a formal letter that is welcoming and easily comprehensible to the parent and the student. This letter should be able to communicate that the teacher values the child’s educatio...

### How To: Do long division without a calculator

This video shows you step by step how to do long division without the use of a calculator. The video shows viewers two different ways to solve a division problem. It first shows how to do the problem the traditional way, then it shows how to do it according to the long division process. The long division process is where you write the whole division, multiplication, and subtraction process out showing all your work. Long division is mainly used when dividing large numbers. There are three com...

### How To: Find the Percent Given Two Numbers

Whether you're shopping for deals, need help with a little math, or any number of other occasions, it's a valuable skill to know how to quickly figure out a percentage given two numbers.

### How To: Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius with a formula

In order to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, you will need to use this formula: F = 9/5C + 32. Therefore, you will need to solve for C or substitute values and solve in that manner.

### How To: Find standard deviation

In this video tutorial, viewers learn how to calculate the standard deviation of a data set. The standard deviation of a statistical population, a data set, or a probability distribution is the square root of its variance. To calculate the standard deviation, users will need to follow these steps. 1) Find the mean of the data. 2) Subtract the mean from each data point. 3) Square each of the values you got in step 2. 4) Then find the mean of the values you get from step 3. 5) Finally, square r...

### How To: Calculate percent composition for chemistry

To calculate percentage composition we will take the example CO2 it stands for Carbon-Di-Oxide. It is the composition of Carbon and Oxygen. We have one carbon and its weight is 12.01 and 2 oxygen. So, we will multiply 2 with 16.00 which is the weight of the oxygen.

### How To: Turn Milk into Strong Natural Glue with Baking Soda and Vinegar

You can do all kinds of unexpected things with milk, like make your own pore strips and invisible ink, or even get rid of red wine stains with it. But did you know that you can also use it to make your own glue?