# Hot Education How-Tos

### How To: The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Most of us have conducted an investigatory science project without even knowing it, or at least without knowing that's what it was called. Most science experiments performed, from elementary to high school students and all the way up to professional scientists, are investigatory projects.

### How To: Make Soap Out of Guava Leaf Extract for a Science Investigatory Project

Unless you're a high-schooler building a nuclear fusion reactor, the hardest part of a science investigatory project often is coming up with a good idea. You want it to be cool yet feasible, novel but still useful.

### How To: Make potassium nitrate at home

Believe it or not, there are cheap ways to make potassium nitrate for your chemistry experiments. And the key ingredient… "sodium-free" salt.

### How To: Remember "greater than" & "less than" symbols

This video shows you how to easily remember "greater than" and "less than" math symbols. The first thing you have to remember is that "less than" symbol looks like the letter L ("less than" symbol is "<"). When you see this sign, remember that < looks like L and means "less than". The other symbol, "greater than" does not look like the letter L, therefore it cannot be "less than" and it's easier to remember. The "greater than" symbol is ">". That's it! Good Luck!

### How To: Make Potassium Chlorate from Ordinary Household Bleach and Salt Substitute

If you're not just a chemistry nerd, but also a firearms freak and explosives nut, then this home brew chemistry concoction is just what you need for some cheap homemade potassium chlorate. It's a mixture of potassium, chlorine and oxygen (KClO3) and is used for such things as gun primers, propellents, and explosives (when mixed with the appropriate fuel). And guess what? NurdRage is going to show you the steps for this makeshift potassium chlorate.

### How To: Make Vitriol (Sulfuric Acid) Using the Oxidizing & Electrochemical Methods

If you've been following the news lately, you've probably heard of the word "vitriol" being used as a political weapon, with people like celebrity left-winger Jane Fonda blaming conservatives like Sarah Palin for "vitriolic" attacks on Democrats and the "violence-provoking rhetoric of the Tea Party" movement for the recent Arizona shooting.

### How To: Heavy Water & Light Ice Experiment

Heavy Water & Light Ice Experiment. What happens? Ice floating over vegetable oil but it decreases in baby oil.

### How To: Find the area of a triangle quickly and easily

Finding the area of a triangle is essential in mathematics. This video will show you how to ace that geometry test in a few simple steps. Not only will you learn how to find the area of a triangle in this video, you will learn to do so quickly and improve your test scores. Finding area is not difficult once you learn the basics.

### Make Slime Without Borax: 5 Easy Recipes for Gooey Homemade Ooze

One of the only things I remember from watching Nickelodeon as a kid is the epic green slime. Looking back, I don't know what was so great about it, but every kid my age thought that being drenched in slime would be the coolest thing on earth.

### How To: Use ">" (greater than) and "<" (less than) symbols

In this video the author explains how to identify the less than (<) and greater than (>) symbols and when to use them. She explains to us to relate the numbers to animals stating that the smaller numbers are smaller animals and bigger numbers are bigger animals. Now she tells us to imagine that smaller animals are eaten up by the larger animals. So she shows a smaller number comes on the left side of '<' sign and bigger number comes on the right side of '<' sign stating that the bigger number...

### How To: Write A Letter From Teachers To Parents

Parental involvement is a crucial ingredient in the success of many children. Teachers know the saying all too well that it takes more than a village to raise a child, for one - it takes parental involvement. Thus, it is important for teachers to reach out to parents in that first week of school. Teachers should write a formal letter that is welcoming and easily comprehensible to the parent and the student. This letter should be able to communicate that the teacher values the child’s educatio...

### How To: Make nitric acid

Watch this science video tutorial from Nurd Rage on how to make nitric acid. They show three ways to make nitric acid based on two different chemical approaches, both of which can be done using easily accessible materials.

### How To: Find the Percent Given Two Numbers

Whether you're shopping for deals, need help with a little math, or any number of other occasions, it's a valuable skill to know how to quickly figure out a percentage given two numbers.

### How To: Subtract a mixed number from a proper fraction in basic math

From Ramanujan to calculus co-creator Gottfried Leibniz, many of the world's best and brightest mathematical minds have belonged to autodidacts. And, thanks to the Internet, it's easier than ever to follow in their footsteps. With this free math tutorial, you'll learn how to subtract a mixed number from a fraction in basic arithmetic.

### How To: Find the value of a variable in an algebraic equation

Need help figuring out how to solve simple algebraic equations? Learn how with this free video lesson. From Ramanujan to calculus co-creator Gottfried Leibniz, many of the world's best and brightest mathematical minds have belonged to autodidacts. And, thanks to the Internet, it's easier than ever to follow in their footsteps (or just finish your homework or study for that next big test).

### How To: Make fireballs you can hold in your hand

This flame you CAN hold, without burning your skin off. Learn to make fireballs you can hold in your hand. This amazing video tutorial shows you how to do it. All you'll need for this little science experiment or fiery weapon is 100% cotton cloth, scissors, lighter fuel, cotton string, and a needle. Be careful to follow the directions in this how-to video carefully otherwise you'll really be playing with fire.

### How To: Find the Volume of Composite Figures (Also Called Composite Shapes)

Composite figures are composed of several geometric shapes and are three-dimensional shapes. The first composite shape is a combination of a rectangular prism and a pyramid. To find the volume of the entire shape you find the volume of each individual shape and add them together. The second figure consists of a cylinder and a hemisphere. Check out the video below for the full lesson.

### How To: Dissolve the shell from a hard-boiled egg with Coca-Cola

If you're a coke fiend, then you may not want to watch this, because you may become faced with a perilous decision— "Should I stop drinking soda?"

### How To: Make Your Own Homemade Glow Sticks

Glow sticks, a popular favor at parties and outdoor events, and a must-have on Halloween, can be traced back to the United States Navy in the mid-1960s. The military desired improved visibility during night operations, and glow sticks, with their small-size portability and lack of batteries, were a perfect tactical solution.

### How To: Ignite a Brillo pad

Check out this instructional science video to learn how to make a steel wool soap pad ignite. Using a 9v battery, touch the Brillo pad to make the steel wool ignite. This is a simple science experiment following step by step the instructions in this video tutorial, trying out for yourself. This is a great experiment to perform with the kids.

### How To: Prove cos(a+b)=(cos a)(cos b)-(sin a)(sin b) in trig

Need help proving the cos(a+b) = (cos a)(cos b)-(sin a)(sin b) trigonometric identity? This free video lesson will show you how. From Ramanujan to calculus co-creator Gottfried Leibniz, many of the world's best and brightest mathematical minds have belonged to autodidacts. And, thanks to the Internet, it's easier than ever to follow in their footsteps (or just finish your homework or study for that next big test). With this installment from Internet pedagogical superstar Salman Khan's series ...

### How To: Solve inductive reasoning problems in math

From Ramanujan to calculus co-creator Gottfried Leibniz, many of the world's best and brightest mathematical minds have belonged to autodidacts. And, thanks to the Internet, it's easier than ever to follow in their footsteps (or just finish your homework or study for that next big test). With this installment from Internet pedagogical superstar Salman Khan's series of free math tutorials, you'll learn how to solve and work with problems involving inductive reasoning in math.

### How To: Dissolve ruthenium metal with household bleach

You've manage to get your hands on some ruthenium, and now you want to destroy the hard silvery-white metal of the transition series. Well, you're going to try all kinds of ways to dissolve this odd metal, but the only successful way to dissolve ruthenium is with a common household cleaner… bleach.

### How To: Do long division without a calculator

This video shows you step by step how to do long division without the use of a calculator. The video shows viewers two different ways to solve a division problem. It first shows how to do the problem the traditional way, then it shows how to do it according to the long division process. The long division process is where you write the whole division, multiplication, and subtraction process out showing all your work. Long division is mainly used when dividing large numbers. There are three com...

### How To: Find the area of a triangle when given 2 sides & angle

This video shows you how to easily find the area of a triangle when you know the length of 2 sides and the angle between them. The first thing you have to do is mark the sides of the triangle by a, b, c, where a is the side between A and B, b is the side between B and C and c is the side between C and A. If you know 2 of these 3 sides an you know the angle between them you can find the area of the triangle very simple: Area= (a x b x sin c)/2, where a, b are the two sides and c is the angle b...

### How To: Make Hard Soap with Guava Leaf Extract & Lavender

In our personal experience, the hardest part about a science investigatory project is simply coming up with a good idea. And we suggest that for your investigatory project you find a topic that's both novel and useful.

### How To: Construct a vinegar battery and power a calculator

Using only vinegar and a few simple materials, it is possible to construct a working battery. This science video tutorial explains how to construct and use a battery like this to power a calculator. A good science project as part of an introductory electricity course. This project can be used as a science fair project or merely for fun. If you've ever wanted to make your own battery, know is the time, this science experiment will show you how.

### How to Be Your Own SpaceX: Design, Build & Test Liquid-Fueled Rocket Engines

Move over NASA— SpaceX is taking over. Well, not really. But today, the privately funded spacecraft company broke all expectations when their Dragon capsule fell to a soft landing in the Pacific Ocean, completing an undoubtedly successful demo flight of nearly two full trips around Earth. It was the first re-entry of a commercial spacecraft ever, bringing commercial space transportation closer to reality.

### How To: Turn water into ice without a freezer

Here's a fun experiment you can do that will demonstrate the effects that pressure has on the freezing point of a liquid. You will amaze your friends as you do what seems to be impossible, turning water into ice without sticking it in the freezer.

### How To: Find a missing side of a triangle, similar to another

In this tutorial the author shows how to find out the missing side of a triangle which is similar to an other triangle. He explains the concept of similar triangle using diagrams and by showing that similar triangles have equal corresponding angles and parallel sides. Now he labels sides of similar triangles and intends to find out the length of unknown side. Now in similar triangles, as the lengths of sides are proportionate he shows how to write a equation of proportion and solve it finding...

### How To: Make a Monster Dry Ice Bubble

Sure it's been done before, but it never gets old. There's something magical about dry ice, bubbles, and especially the result you see when they're combined!

### How To: Write a logarithm as a sum or difference of logarithms

This video shows the method to write a logarithm as a sum or difference of logarithms. The square root of the term given is taken out as half according to the rule. Then the numerator and denominator is divided into product of factors. This is broken into the difference of numerator and denominator according to the rule. Finally, the product of factors is expressed as the sum of factors. Now we see the domain of the term. As the term is a square root of the term it should be greater than zero...

### How To: Identify characteristics of a sample during a survey

To identify characteristics of a sample in your survey, there are many factors to consider of your samples. The first four characteristics you need to focus on are gender, age, income level, and education level. All four of these characteristics must be proportional to that of the population. You also need to consider the geographic location. Only take samples from the immediate geographical area. Finally, an important characteristic of the survey is the sample size. You do not want to ask to...

### How To: Find the equation of a circle given: center & tangent

In this video, the instructor shows how to find the equation of a circle given its center point and a tangent line to it. To do this, take a graph and plot the given point and the tangent on that graph. Now, from the center of the circle, measure the perpendicular distance to the tangent line. This gives us the radius of the circle. Using the center point and the radius, you can find the equation of the circle using the general circle formula (x-h)*(x-h) + (y-k)*(y-k) = r*r, where (h,k) is th...

### How To: Calculate weight if given the mass

The video shows how to calculate weight if the mass is given and vice versa.Later on in this unit you will learn about Newton's laws of motion and Newton's second law of motion gives us a way to change mass into weight and vice versa.This law will tell you what is happening to objects when the net force on the object is not equal to zero and the easy way to say what will happen is that the object will accelerate.But how much the object accelerates depends on two things,firstly the mass of the...

### How To: Extract DNA from a Strawberry with Basic Kitchen Items

We all know that DNA is pretty amazing, but it's not something that most of us get much hands-on experience with. Even though it's in every living thing around us, we never see it, so we rarely think about it either.

### How To: Make chlorine gas with pool chlorine and hydrochloric acid

Chlorine gas is a very useful oxidant, which was first introduced as a toxic weapon by the German Army. Even today, it's still used as a weapon, most recently in the Iraq War by insurgents. But chlorine gas has more useful (and less lethal) applications, and if you want to learn how to make some at home, NurdRage has the answers.

### How To: Make potassium nitrate from instant cold packs

Watch this science video tutorial from Nurd Rage on how to make potassium nitrate from instant cold packs and potassium hydroxide.

### How To: Translate a sentence into math symbols

We will be translating the sentence "twice y differs from 5 by more than two, “into a mathematical equation. The word twice generally means two times, so 2*y (because y comes next in the sentence). Differs normally means is different and a difference from something in a mathematical sentence means subtraction most of the time, thus minus five. We don't know if we’re talking about below 5 or above 5 on the number line, so we put absolute value around the equation. More than implies a greater t...

### How To: Make elemental sulfur (sulphur)

This video tutorial is in the Education category which will show you how to make elemental sulfur (sulphur). The chemicals you need are nitric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The reaction produces toxic SO2 gas so keep it coved with a watch glass. Put 12.9 grams of sodium thiosulphate in a beaker and dissolve it in minimum amount of water. Pour about 15ml of nitric acid in to the beaker. Let it sit in a warm place for a couple of hours and the sulphur will settle at the bottom of the beaker. Th...